Teaching & Learning Styles
Individuals have their own varied and preferred ways of learning. In every course that you teach, whether on campus or online, you should look for opportunities to connect to and use each of these styles to help students be successful.
This section looks at:
- Teaching Styles
- Thinking Styles
- Learning Styles
- Characteristics of Adult Learners
No one model of instruction will be the best for all situations. These two contrasting teaching styles are basic models for instructor/student interaction.
|Instructor-centered Teaching||Learner-centered Teaching|
|The underlying philosophy is that students learn best by not only receiving knowledge but also by:|
You can select one or combine these two teaching models when designing or facilitating a course.
In general, a learner-centered approach works best when the learners are relatively mature and possess significant related knowledge, or where sequencing of material is less critical.
Instructor-centered presentation is more appropriate when learners are less mature and lack necessary prior knowledge. Learners who are immature or lack necessary prior knowledge frequently make poor instructional choices if left on their own (e.g., they are unlikely to estimate correctly whether practice is needed, when sufficient mastery has been attained, etc.).
Different learners have different thinking styles. While these are generalizations — some people use more than one style — each individual usually has a preferred style. Your course will be most successful if you vary your style to meet the variety of thinking styles among your students.
Most students gravitate to one of these main learning styles, but they can usually adapt to another style if necessary. However, learners tend to look for their preferred style in each learning situation because they associate that style with learning success. When designing or teaching a course, you should look for opportunities to incorporate learning experiences and activities that appeal to each learning style to increase the likelihood of learner success.
|Learning Style||Characteristics||Teaching Strategies|
|Visual Learners||Process new information best when it is visually illustrated or demonstrated|
|Auditory Learners||Process new information best when it is spoken|
|Kinesthetic Learners||Process new information best when it can be touched or manipulated|
|Environmental Learners||Process new information best when it is presented in surroundings that match learner preferences (room temperature, lighting, seating, etc.)|
Individual or group projects that allow learners to define the form of their final learning product let them create learning experiences that appeal to their personal learning style.
Characteristics of Adult Learners
There are some distinct differences in the learning styles of adult learners when compared to the younger college population. These descriptions here are generalizations — exceptions occur in each group of learners — but you may want to keep these differences in mind if you are designing or teaching a course that may have adult students.
|Adult Learners are…||Younger Learners are…|
|Problem-centered and seek educational solutions that will take them from where they are to where they want to be in their life or profession.||Subject-oriented, seeking to successfully complete each course, regardless of how the course relates to their own goals.|
|Results-oriented, with specific results in mind for education. Because their participation is often voluntary, adults may drop out if the education they are receiving does not lead to those results||Future-oriented, since they are often in a stage of life when education is a mandatory or expected activity and designed for their future.|
|Self-directed, and typically do not depend on others for direction.||Often dependent on others for direction.|
|Often skeptical about new information, preferring to try it out before accepting it.||Usually accepting of new information without seriously questioning it or trying it out.|
|Looking for education that relates or applies directly to perceived needs, and is timely and appropriate for their current lives.||Seeking education that prepares them for an often unclear future so may not look for immediate application of learning.|
|Willing to accept responsibility for their own learning, as long as they see that learning as timely and appropriate.||Dependent on others to design their learning and sometimes reluctant to accept responsibility for their own learning.|
When designing or teaching a course for adults, remember that…
- They are more self-guided in their learning.
- They bring more, and expect to bring more, to a learning situation because of their wider experience.
- Because of their greater experience, they can also take more away.
- They require learning "to make sense," and may not participate in a learning activity just because the instructor says to do it
This means that you may find certain teaching strategies more effective than others with your adult learners.
|Adult Learner Characteristics||Teaching Strategies|
|Adults have years of experience and a wealth of knowledge|
|Adults have established values, beliefs, and opinions|
|Adults expect to be treated as adults|
|Adults need to feel self-directed|
|Adults often have a problem-centered approach to learning|
|Adults tend to be more interested in straightforward how-to than in survey type courses|
|Adults have increased variation in learning styles, since individual differences increase with age|
Instruction designed for adults tends to be more effective if it is learner-centered rather than instructor-centered. Instructors must maintain a careful balance between the presentation of new material and its applications, discussion and participation among students, and the academic calendar.
Instructors must wrestle with the paradox of establishing control by being willing to give it up! The tendencies to feel good about expertly delivering information to students and to feel threatened by student challenges to the course plan, gives way to a more learner-centered approach that is most effective for adult learners.
If you would like to talk with an Instructional Design Consultant about learning strategies and methods that connect with different types of learners, contact Teaching & Learning Services.